Saturday, June 12, 2010

Rerences used in this dictionary

My many travels around the country gave me an opportunity to get first hand information from the native speakers or local settlers.

The following links will tour you to some of my souvenir photographs  of places where I had been: 

(Note: Copy the URL address to your browser if clicking over it will not automatically open the links.)




A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

abbreviations used
abbrev. – abbreviation
adj. – adjective
adv. – adverb
Boh. – Boholano
Ceb. – Cebuano
chem. abbrev. – chemical abbreviation
Chin. – Chinese \China
dw – derived from the word
Eng. – English
Fil. – Filipino
Jap. – Japanese
adv. – adverb
n. – noun
prob. – probably – scientific name
Span. – Spanish
Tag. – Tagalog
Vis. – Visayan \Visayas
War. – Waray
The following are the words used in this dictionary to describe the name of the people native to a particular region or province, as well as to their distinctive language and proprietorship:
Aklanon (ak-lá-non) a Visayan from the province of Aklan \the people of Aklan \the culture, custom, and tradition of the people in Aklan; 2.) (adj.) pertains to or belongs to Aklan \from or native of Aklan
Albayano (al-ba-ya-no) 1.) (n.) a native or local resident in the province of Albay in Bicol region \the people of Albay \the culture, custom, and tradition of Albay folks; 2.) (adj.) pertains to or belongs to Albay and its people \from or native of Albay
Bul-anon, Boholano
Bul-anon (bul-á-non) refers to the people in or coming from Bohol. Rather, it is older or locally used.
Boholano (bo-ho-lá-no) refers to the people, the spoken language and things that belong to Bohol.
Capampangan, Pampangueño, Pampanggo
Capampangan (ka-pam-pá-ngan) refers to the language spoken by the people of Pampanga
Pampangueño (pam-pang-gén-yo) refers to the people and things that belong to Pampanga
Pampango (pam-páng-go) the alternative of Pampangueño, and is used locally
Cuyonon (ku-yó-non) 1. (n.) a native or local from the many islets of Cuyo in Palawan; 2. (n.) a dialect spoken on Cuyo group of islands off the northeast sea of mainland Palawan.
Ecijano (e-si-há-no) *1.) (n.) a native or resident of Nueva Ecija \the local residents or constituent of Nueva Ecija; 2.) (adj.) pertains to or about Nueva Ecija and its people \of or belongs to Nueva Ecija.
Iloko, Ilocano
Iloko (i-ló-ko) refers appropriately to the spoken language of the people in Ilocos region and nearby provinces in northern, eastern, and central Luzon.
Ilocano (i-lo-ká-no) refers to the people and things that belong to Ilocos region. This is more often confused with Iloko.
Ivatan, Itbayat, Itbayaten
Ivatan (i-ba-tá) refers to the people, language, and things that belong to the Batanes group of islands, composed mainly of three big islands of Batan, Sabtang and Itbayat and several islets around them.
Itbayat or Itbayaten (it-ba-yat) the alternative name for Ivatan, and is used locally
Leyteño (le-tén-yo) refers to the people in Leyte, and to things that belong to Leyte. Leyteño speak Waray in the eastern part, Cebuano in a small part in the western coastline, and Boholano in the south and southwestern part of Leyte.
Lagueño (la-gén-yo) 1. (n.) a native settler or local resident in Laguna province \someone from Laguna; 2. (adj.) refers to the people of Laguna and their culture, tradition, style, produce and products
Mindanawanon; Mindanaoanon
Mindanawanon or Mindanaoanon (min-da-na-wá-non) refers to the people in Mindanao, and to things that belong to Mindanao. Mindanawanons speak different languages, but Visayan Cebuano is used as lingua franca by almost 2/3 of the mainland settlers, particularly those in the north and eastern side. In the south towards the Sulu archipelago, Filipino Muslims are dominant who use Tausug or Maguindanaon as their lingua franca, while further south people communicate in Bahasa Malayo. There are many ethnic tribes anywhere in Mindanao and each tribe has its own distinct dialect.
Maguindanaon, Magindanaon, Maguindanaoan
Maguindanaon (ma-gin-da-ná-won; ma-gin-da-na-ón ) refers to the people, things that belong to Maguindanao province where Cotabato City is can be found. Be aware that Cotabato City is not in North Cotabato or South Cotabato provinces.
Magindanaon (ma-gin-da-na-ón) refers to the spoken language of Maguindanaon people, commonly referred to as the local dialect of Muslims in Maguindanao province. The locals of Maguinadanao would conveniently call themselves as Magindanaon when conversing to each other. However, the outsiders formally call and refer them as the Maguindanaon.
Maguindanaoan (ma-gin-da-náw-wan) similar to Maguindanaon
Masbateño, Masbatenyo
Masbateño (mas-ba-tén-yo) (Masbateños or Masbatenyos [pl.]) *1.) (n.) a native or islander from the island of Masbate; the people of Masbate; the native dialect spoken in Masbate; 2.) (adj.) of or belongs to Masbate island and its people \Masbate-style
Novo Vizcayano, Vizcayano
Novo Vizcayano (no-bo bis-ka-yá-no) (Novos Vizcayanos [pl.]) *1.) (n.) a native, local settler, or resident of Nueva Vizcaya province; the people of Nueva Vizcaya; 2.) (adj.) of or belongs to Nueva Vizcaya \ Nueva Vizcaya-style
Vizcayano (bis-ka-yá-no) (Novos Vizcayanos [pl.]) *1.) (n.) same as Novo Vizcayano
Spanish, Kastila, Katsila, Kinatsila, Español
Spanish (es-pá-nis) refers the language spoken by Spaniards (people from Spain), and things that belongs to or originate in Spain.
Español (es-pan-yól) is the Pinoy word for Spanish
Kastila (kas-tí-là) is the Tagalog term for Spanish and the Spaniards.
Katsila (kat-tsí-là) is the Visayan term for Spaniards.
Kinatsila (ki-nàt-si-lâ) is the Visayan term for the Spanish way of communicating.
Sugboanon, Cebuano
Sugboanon (sug-bo-á-non) refers exclusively to the people of Cebu and their language
Cebuano (se-bu-wá-no) refers to the people, things and the language spoken in Cebu. Cebuano language is also widely used in the neighboring islands in Visayas (such as in Negros, Bohol, Leyte, and Biliran), some islands in western Luzon (Romblon, Masbate, and Palawan), and spread over to more than two-third (2/3) of mainland Mindanao. Before Tagalog was proclaimed as the national language, Cebuano was the most widely used dialect in the Philippines.
Tarlaqueño (tar-lak-kén-yo) refers to or belongs to the people in Tarlac.
Waray, Samareño, Samarnon
Waray (wa-ráy) refers to the spoken language of the people in Samar and eastern part of Leyte.
Samareño (sa-ma-rén-yo) refers to the people, things that belong to Samar
Samarnon (sa-mar-nón) an alternative of Samareño

- A Dictionary of Difficult Words, 1990 edition - Compiled by Robert H. Hill, © Under International and Pan-American copyright conventions, Published by Gramercy Publishing Company, New York, 225 Park Ave., South, New York, N.Y. 10003, ISBN 0-517-69414-x
- A Quick Guide to Filipino Food & Cooking, Cris C. Abiva, © 2001, ISBN 971-27-1069-6 (bp), 971-27-1068-8 (np)
- Kinilaw: A Philippine cuisine of freshness, Edilberto N. Alegre & Doreen G. Fernandez, © 1991, ISBN 971-569-014-9
- An English-Cebuano Visayan Dictionary, Rodolfo Cabonce, SJ, © 1983 Isabela Cultural Corporation, ISBN 971-08-0052-3
- Cebuano English Dictionary with an English-Cebuano Lexicon, Mimi B. Trosdal¸ © 1990 ISBN 971-100-059-8
- Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary, © 1987 William Collins Sons & Co., Ltd. 8 Grafton Street, London W1x 3LA, ISBN 0-00-370023-2
- Dictionary Bisayan-English-Tagalog, Compiled by Tomas Hermosisima & Pedro S, Lopez, Jr., © 1966 Pedro B. Ayuda & Co., 935-937 Morayta St., Manila, Philippines, Library of Congress (US) Catalogue Card Number SA66-1
- Diksiyonaryong Pilipino-Pilipino, Ligaya C. Buenaventura, © 1982 by Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. Glorietta 3 Mall, Ayala Center, Publisher: Goodwill Trading co., Inc. (Goodwill Bookstore), ISBN 971-12-0191-7
- Diksyonaryo Waray-Waray (Visaya) – English – Tagalog, Tomas A. Abuyen, © 1992
- English-Filipino Synonyms (Including: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, Pangasinense, Maranao, Maguindanao, and other native languages/dialects,) Compiled and edited by Demetrio A. Quirino Jr. (Ilocano), Domingo C. Salita (Pampango), Marcial S. Secillano, Jr. (Bicolano), Oscar M. Soliven (Pangasinense), Zenaida P. Villanueva (Tagalog), Marivic Q. Avila (Cebuano), Nelson P. Beniabon (Hiligaynon), Merlita S. Lotoc (Waray), Tarahata A. Naga (Maguindanao), Rowea A. Pangandapun (Maranao), Bernardito B. Rementilla (other languages), © 1987 Royal Publishing House, Inc. Quezon City, Philippines
- Combined English-Tagalog Ilocano Vocabulary, Juan O. Afenir (Ilocano Section) and Reynadlo de Dios (Tagalog Section); © 19976 by Felix M. Manalili, Publisher, P. Manalili Bookshop, Publisher and Distributor, 2030 Claro M. Recto Ave., Manila.
- Modern English-Pilipino-Bicolano Dictionary, Mario “Guese” Tungol, with consulting Editors: Cesar Amurao Panlilio (AB), Apol V. Ramos, Jr., and Lourdes Punzalan Cruz (BSE), © 1989 by Merriam & Webster, Inc., ISBN 971-30-0955-X
- Modern English-Pilipino-Maranao Dictionary, Mario “Guese” Tungol, with consulting Editors: Cesar Nocum, Mila Buan Balatbat-Tuaño, Rosalinda Sia, and Sandor Abad, © 1992 by Merriam & Webster, Inc., ISBN 971-30-09a8-2
- Pocket Dictionary English-Tagalog-Visayan Cebuano-Ilongo Vocabulary, M.Jacobo Enriquez, Jose A. Bautista, and Francis J. Jamolangue, Jr., 1995 edition, published and distributed by Philippine Book Company, 1186 Quezon Ave., Quezon City
- English Tagalog Dictionary, Leo James English C.Ss.R., © 1997 by Congress of the Most Holy Redeemer, ISBN 971-08-1073-1
- Rogets Desk Thesaurus, Editor: Joyce O’conner; Project Editor: Enid Pearsons, © 2001 by Random House, Inc. New York, Publisher: Randim House Reference, Random House, Inc., New York, NY, ISBN 0-375-42569-1
- Tagalog-English Dictionary, Leo James English C.Ss.R., © 1986 by Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, Published by the national Bookstore Store, Quad Alpha Centrum Bldg. 125 Pioneer St., Mandaluyong City, ISBN 971-08-4357-5(SB)
- The Merriam-Websters Thesaurus, © 1991 by Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, Springfield, Massachusetts, Philippine Copyright 1991 by Merriam-Webster, Inc., Publisher: Merriam Webster Inc., ISBN 0-87779-607-6
- The New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, © 1995 by Lexicon Publications, Inc. Danbury, CT, ISBN 0-71772-4682-5 - Revised and updated 1994
- The Oxford Dictionary Of New Words, 2nd edition, edited by: Elizabeth Knowles with Julia Elliot, © 1997 by Oxford University Press, Inc. New York, ISBN 0-19-860235-9
- Webster’s English/Spanish – Spanish/English, © 1997 Landoll Inc., Ashland Ohio 44805
- Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, © 1979 by G&C Merriam Co., Springfield, Massachusetts, USA; Philippine copyright by G&C Merriam Co., ISBN 0-87779-358-1
- Claude Tayag (Turo-Turo), Bicol Express: Homeward bound, The Philippine Star, Apr 01, 2005 p. K-2
- Claude Tayag, (Turo-Turo), The duman lives on!, The Philippine Star, Dec. 15, 2005 p. G-2
- Vicente S. Labro, Binagol; Leyte sells famous sweet in a half (coco) nut shell, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, p. B5
- Chicken Bacolod ad feature, Chicken Bacolod raises the level of street food, The Philippine Star, Mar. 15, 2008
- FNRI-DOST, Coconut flour: A healthy alternative to wheat and other flour products, The Philippine Star, Jul. 15, 2008
- Micky Fenix (Country Cooking), A delicious way to travel, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Oct. 11, 2007, p.C4
- Micky Fenix (Country Cooking), A private fruit festival, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Sep. 20, 2007
- Micky Fenix (Country Cooking), An off-season food trip, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Aug 02, 2007
- Micky Fenix (Country Cooking), Dreaming of rice cakes, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, May 13, 2007
- Micky Fenix (Country Cooking), One of England’s best chefs wears a Pink Kitchen apron, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Oct. 30, 2008
- Micky Fenix (Country Cooking), Puto tops in Biñan; Century-old food tradition lives on, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Jul. 16, 2007
- Micky Fenix (Country Cooking), Something about vinegar, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Jul. 19, 2007
- Micky Fenix (Country Cooking), Sugar high in Negros, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Jul. 31, 2008
- Micky Fenix (Country Cooking), 'Pinikpikan, papaitan,' mashed yam with 'lechon kawali,' The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Sep. 24, 2009
- Lydia D. Castillo (In My Basket), Easy fish fillet recipe, The Philippine Star, Oct. 14, 2007
- Lydia D. Castillo (In My Basket), Innovations, The Philippine Star, Aug. 10, 2008
- Lydia D. Castillo (In my basket), Forty years and getting stronger, The Philippine Star, Jul. 11, 2010
- Teddy Tepora & Melinda Eugenio, 2 new coffee varieties, The Philippine Star, Mar, 22, 2009
- Heny Sison (A Tatse of Life), A whiff from heaven, The Philippine Star, Aug. 14, 2008.
- Pantalan Maynila Restaurant ad feature, Aniit, adobong manok and more at Pantalan Restaurant, The Philippine Star, Oct. 23, 2008
- Across the Nation, Bulacan farmer unveils sipag-kalan, The Philippine Star, Apr. 13, 2008
- Vangie Bega-Reyes, Eat your way across the archipelago, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Jun 10, 2007, p.2

- Rudy Fernandez (R&D Notes), Good income from tilanggit, The Philippine Star, Aug. 24, 2008
- Rudy Fernandez (R&D Notes), Saluyot can earn a fortune - UPLB, The Philippine Star, Mar. 15, 2009
- Rudy A. Fernandez, Ilocos Norte set to become RP's 'dragon fruit capital', The Philippine Star, August 22, 2010, p.B4
- Cristina Arzadon, Ilocos cuisine ready for international market, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Dec. 13, 2006
- Norma Chikiamco, Ilocos Sur chefs shine, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Oct. 30, 2008
- Norma Chikiamco (PDI Lifestyle kitchen-tested recipe), Tricks to enhance coffee and tea, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Oct. 30, 2008
- Norma Chikiamco, ‘Pidjanga,’ ‘tabon-tabon,’ ‘kasili,’ ‘pato tim,’ ‘lechon kambing,’ ‘pilit’ – Caraga specialties, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 29, 2010, p.C3
- Bong Barrameda, Inquirer Trivia, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, various reference dates
- Artemio Dumlao, Kalinga now brewing own exotic civet cat, Coffee, Jul 15, 2008
- Ephraim Aguilar, No more aching feet for ’kakanin’ vendor, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Aug. 08, 2008
- Casa Armas ad feature, Paella perfection, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Aug. 28, 2008
- Sol Jose Vanzi, Sinigang Secrets, The Manila Bulletin, Feb. o1, 2009, p. L-4
- Pam Pastor, Sisig stops, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Jun. 01, 2007
- Anonymous, SL Agritech rice varieties gain popularity, The Philippine Star, Jul 20, 2008
- Anonymous, Why Filipinos are last to know about wonder food, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, May 18, 2003
- Lola Maria Restaurant ad feature, The Filipino rice cake made legendary, The Philippine Star, Aug. 24, 2008.
- Danfi Galvez, The Sutukil experience at Mabuhay Manor, The Philippine Star, Nov. 25, 2007
- Charlie Lagasca, Tilapia burger, anyone?, The Philippine Star, Aug. 17, 2008
- Cabalen restaurant’s ad feature, Twin buffet offerings for Lenten observers and graduates, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Mar. 15, 2007
- Cesar C. Villariba, Virgin coconut oil being tested on SARS patients, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, May 08, 2003
- Michael L. Tan, Wraps and rolls, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Sep. 17, 2008
- Ernest Reynoso Gala (Eat’s Easy), Yes, you can make sardines at home, The Philippine Star, Jan. 24, 2008
- Sol Jose Vanzi (Timpla't Tikim), The wide world of atsara, Manila Bulletin, Jan. 23, 2009, p.C1
- Maricar Cinco, City kicks off fest, Inquirer Southern Luzon, PDI Sep. 1, 2009, p.A13
- Tessa R. Salazar, Science/Health, Scientists show ‘luyang dilaw’ kills tumor cells, Philippine Daily Inquirer Sep. 09, 2009, p.B7
- Delifrance ad feature, The secret to loving fruitcakes, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, Dec. 25, 2009, p.B4
- Willie T. Ong, MD, Which fish are safe to it, The Philippine Star, Oct. 20, 2009, p.D2
- Sandy Daza, Pampanga food trip - morcon, ‘pastillas de leche’ to lust for, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 29, 2010, p.C3
- Ambeth R. Ocampo (Looking Back), History in food, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 04, 2010, p.A15
- Sheila Crisostomo, DOH warns against eating 'butete', The Philippine Star, August 24, 2010, p.4
- Mylene Mendoza-Dayrit, Can guyabano cure cancer? - Well-being, The Philippine Star, August 24, 2010, p.D1
- Roman F. Floresca - ed., Auorora farmers plant seeds of hope ­- Agriculture/Environment section, The Philippine Star, August 22, 2010, p.B4
- Yolanda Sotelo, BFAR launches drive to save rare fish species, Inquirer Northern Luzon, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, October 10, 2010
3. Magazines
- Michaela “Micky” Fenix (Editor-in-chief), FOOD magazine, ABS-CBN Publishing Inc., various editions in 2008, 2009, and 2010
- Mol Fernando, Where Cows Fly, Sunday Inquirer Magazine, Feb 15, 2009, p.11
- Dr Willie Ong, Goin’ bananas, Mabuhay Magazine, January 2009, p.48
- Jeff O’Connell, Does Milk Do Your Body Good? Men’s Health, Summit Media, January 2009, p. 84-85.
- The officers and staff members of the Municipal Planning Development Offices (MPDO’s), the City Planning Development Offices (CPDO’s), and Provincial Planning Development Offices (PPDO’s) of almost all towns, cities, and provinces in the country.
- Local (city’s and municipal’s) Department of Tourism offices in the countryside
- Supermarkets, groceries, and department stores throughout the country
- Wet markets, fish ports, and abattoirs throughout the country.
- Farms and Bagsakan Centers throughout the country.
- The vendors and peddlers encountered in the streets and markets throughout the country.
- The cooks and food operators throughout the country.
· Rudney S. Belarmino, owner of Rudney Restaurant in Culasi, Antique
- Local libraries throughout the country.
- Food demonstrations and exhibits held in various places and occasions.
- Assorted handouts and brochures both in public and private sources throughout the country
- Guidelines For The Preparation Of Halal Food And Goods For The Muslim Consumers, September 18, 1975. [P.N. (PU 120; B.PGK.0.5001/3/32.] Haji Mohamed Bin Yaacob, Minister of Trade and Industry, published by Dr. Ahmad Robin Wahab, © 2004, AmalMerge (M) Sdn. Bhd.
- WikiPilipinas, Hip’n Free Philippine Encyclopedia, an online website (
Copyright © 2009-2014 by Edgie Polistico - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Posted here is the 4th Update (2010). Latest copy is now a book published by ANVIL Publishing (2016), which is ten times more updated with 10,000 more entries than what is posted here. The book was chosen among "World Best Culinary Books" in the international 22nd Gourmand Book Awards. The book also won Best Book On Food in the 36th National Book Awards (2017). (Click right column banners to get your copies or CLICK HERE NOW.